CRUD in PWR/VVER Coolant (Volume I)

Basic course for Plant Chemists and Fuel Engineers | taught by A.N.T. International

Course description


The purpose of this course is to provide insight into different types of phenomena, like solubility, transportation, deposition and release of crud that helps to better understand the crud behaviour under PWR/VVER/CANDU operating conditions. There is an associated course which describes in detail the mitigation tools for adequate crud control. The information given in this and the associated course:

  • Can support the plant chemists to establish their coolant chemistry strategy to achieve the plant specific goals.
  • Is valuable for fuel vendors and plant fuel engineers to understand the influence of coolant chemistry on fuel performance.

This course involves watching webinars. Complementary reading is optional to even deepen your knowledge. The course material, including the online content, can be accessed at times convenient for practicing engineers and managers. The PowerPoint-presentations are available for download on almost all lectures. You will find them just before the lecture starts.

If you need a printed certificate, please don’t hesitate to contact us and we will send it to you via regular mail. You may reach us at

Please note that these PowerPoint-presentations are the actual file from the seminar that has been recorded. Therefore, there may occur spelling errors and/or less perfect pictures or slides. As the presentations are the expert’s own material we have not edited them before making these lectures available online.

If you have any questions regarding this course, please contact support at


Dr. Suat Odar

Course duration

The below listed time for the lectures is the actual running time. More time may be needed to digest the information provided in this course and you may have to watch some lectures more than once.

  • Total time: around 8 hours 
  • Complementary reading: 3 h
  • Webinars: 5 h

Course parts

A) Crud in the coolant of PWR, VVER and CANDU plants
  Sources of crud
  • Composition and thickness of the oxide layers
  • Influence of design and structural materials (PWR, VVER and CANDU plants)
  Release and transportation of crud in the coolant
  • Interaction of oxide layers with coolant 
  • Particulate, colloidal and dissolved
  • Distribution, composition
  Fuel deposition
  • Mechanism
  • Composition, morphology and distribution on fuel assemblies
  • Consequences of fuel crud deposits (cladding corrosion, AOA)
  Core crud release and Radiation build-up
B) Conclusions


The information presented in this course has been compiled and analysed by Advanced Nuclear Technology International Europe AB (ANT International®) and its subcontractors. ANT International has exercised due diligence in this work, but does not warrant the accuracy or completeness of the information. ANT International does not assume any responsibility for any consequences as a result of the use of the information for any party, except a warranty for reasonable technical skill, which is limited to the amount paid for this course.

A.N.T. International
A.N.T. International

ANT International Academy support team can be reached at